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EileenDurante

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UNDERSTANDING BLOOD WORK: THE BIOCHEMICAL PROFILE

BIOCHEMICAL PROFILE
Blood work is a very important diagnostic tool that provides a
significant amount of information about your pet's health. A
biochemical profile is a blood test that assesses the function of
internal organs, measures the electrolytes such as blood potassium,
and identifies the levels of circulating enzymes. Understanding the
biochemical profile can be difficult but reveals a wealth of
information.

SAMPLE
Twenty of the most common tests are listed. Normal values are listed
in parentheses and vary from lab to lab and those listed should not
be considered universal.

Glucose..........................117 mcg/dl...(80-120)
BUN (blood urea nitrogen)........24 mg/dl...(8-29)
Creatinine…......................0.8 mg/dl...(0.4-1.2)
Sodium (Na)......................140 mEq/l...(139-164)
Potassium (K)....................5.2 mEq/l...(4.4-6.1)
Chloride.........................104 mEq/l...(10-118)
CO2 (carbon dioxide).............22 mEq/l...(22-285)
Calcium….........................9.6 mg/dl...(9.4-11.6)
Phosphorus.......................5.6 mg/dl...(2.5-6.2)
Total Protein (TP)...............6.3 gm/dl...(5.8-8.1)
Albumin..........................2.9 gm/dl...(2.6-4)
Bilirubin........................0.6 mg/dl...(0.2-0.7)
Cholesterol......................204 mg/dl...(129-330)
Triglyceride.....................82 mg/dl...(36-135)
ALKP (alkaline phosphatase)......65 U/l...(20-70)
AST (asparate aminotransferase)..30 U/l...(14-42)
ALT (alanine aminotransferase)...45 U/l...(15-52)
GGT (gamma-glutamyl transferase).5 U/l...(1-12)
Amylase..........................850 U/l...(280-950)
CK (creatine kinase).............47 U/l...(0-130)

WHAT DOES IT ALL MEAN?

Glucose is the end product of carbohydrate metabolism and is the
primary source of energy for the body. High levels indicate stress,
Cushing's disease, diabetes, pancreatitis or can be due to certain
medications. Low levels can indicate liver disease, insulin overdose,
severe bacterial infection, hypothyroidism and Addison's disease. Toy
breed puppies are prone to low blood glucose for unknown reasons.

BUN stands for blood urea nitrogen and is the primary end product of
protein metabolism. High levels indicate kidney failure or disease,
dehydration, shock, high protein diet, certain toxin ingestions, poor
circulation to the kidneys and urinary obstruction. Low levels
indicate liver disease or starvation.

Creatinine is the end product of phosphocreatine metabolism, which is
important in muscle contractions. High levels indicate kidney failure
or disease, dehydration, shock, certain toxin ingestions, poor
circulation to the kidneys and urinary obstruction. Low levels
indicate liver disease or starvation.

Sodium works in combination with potassium and is very important in
maintaining normal function of muscle and nerves. It is also an
important electrolyte in every part of the body. High levels indicate
dehydration, lack of water, diabetes insipidus, Cushing's and excess
salt intake. Low levels indicate starvation, severe diarrhea,
vomiting, Addison's disease, hypothyroidism and metabolic acidosis.

Potassium works in combination with sodium and is very important in
maintaining normal function of muscle and nerves. High levels
indicate diabetes, certain toxin ingestions, urinary obstruction,
acute kidney failure, severe muscle damage and Addison's disease. Low
levels indicate vomiting and diarrhea, gastrointestinal cancer,
insulin overdose, Cushing's disease, overuse of diuretics and
starvation.

Chloride is important in maintaining the acid balance in the blood as
well as combining with hydrogen to form hydrochloric acid for stomach
digestion. High levels indicate dehydration, metabolic acidosis,
Addison's disease and kidney disease. Low levels indicate vomiting
and metabolic alkalosis.

CO2 indicates the current acid balance of the body and is the end
product of metabolism. High levels indicate an acidic condition and
can be due to kidney failure, vomiting, dehydration or overuse of
diuretics. Low levels indicate a basic condition of the blood and can
be due to starvation, kidney failure (can also cause acidosis),
diarrhea and poor liver function.

Calcium is a mineral found throughout the body. It is the basis for
bones, teeth and muscle contractions. High levels indicate certain
forms of cancer, Addison's disease, excess intake of vitamin D and an
overactive parathyroid gland. Low levels indicate eclampsia, severe
pancreatitis, dietary imbalance, intestinal absorption disorders, low
intact of vitamin D, Cushing's disease and certain toxin ingestions.

Phosphorus is often associated with calcium. It is important in all
aspects of metabolism. High levels indicate kidney disease, dietary
imbalance, excess ingestion of vitamin D and severe tissue trauma.
Low levels indicate dietary imbalance, certain cancers, overdose of
insulin, diabetes, eclampsia and an overactive parathyroid gland.

Total Protein (TP) is an important substance in all parts of the
body. High levels indicate dehydration, inflammation, chronic
infection and certain cancers. Low levels indicate intestinal
absorption problems, liver disease, Addison's disease, severe burns
and losses through the kidneys.

Albumin is the major protein found in the body. It carries various
substances through the blood and is important in maintaining pressure
within the vessels. High levels indicate dehydration. Low levels
indicate chronic inflammation, liver disease, kidney disease,
starvation and blood loss.

Bilirubin is a bile pigment and is the end product of red blood cell
breakdown. High levels typically result in jaundice and can be due to
bile duct obstruction, gall bladder obstruction, liver disease and
rapid breakdown of red blood cells. Low levels are not considered
clinically relevant.

Cholesterol is important in the synthesis of certain hormones. High
levels are not as important as in people. Low levels indicate liver
disease, starvation, kidney disease, Cushing's, pancreatitis,
diabetes and hypothyroidism.

Triglyceride is important in storing fat and releasing fatty acids.
High levels have been associated with seizures in schnauzers. Low
levels indicate starvation or malnutrition.

ALKP is important in metabolism and is found in liver cells. High
levels indicate bile duct obstruction, Cushing's, liver disease,
certain cancers and may be due to certain drugs such as steroids or
phenobarbital. Low levels indicate starvation or malnutrition.

AST is important in the breakdown and elimination of nitrogen. High
levels indicate muscle damage, heart muscle damage, liver damage,
toxin ingestion, inflammation and various metabolic disorders. Low
levels indicate starvation or malnutrition.

ALT is also important in the metabolism of nitrogen and is most often
associated with the liver. High levels indicate liver damage, toxin
ingestion, Cushing's disease and various metabolic disorders. Low
levels indicate starvation or malnutrition.

GGT is also important in nitrogen metabolism and is found within
liver cells. High levels indicate bile duct obstruction, liver
disease, pancreatitis, Cushing's and can be caused by high levels of
steroids. Low levels indicate starvation and malnutrition.

Amylase is secreted by the pancreas and is important in normal
digestion of starch. High levels indicate pancreatic inflammation or
cancer, kidney disease, prostatic inflammation, diabetic ketoacidosis
and liver cancer. Low levels can indicate malnutrition or starvation.

CK is very important in storing energy needed for muscle
contractions. High levels indicate muscle trauma or damage such as
due to seizures, surgery, bruises, inflammation, nutritional and
degenerative diseases. Low levels are not clinically relevant.


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Reply with quote  #2 
Awesome info Eileen!!  Thank you :-)
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BarnyardViewFarm

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Reply with quote  #3 
 
I copied and saved it. Good stuff to have.

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stilabby

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Reply with quote  #4 
Very helpful info.

Thanks Eileen!!

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SilverKnight

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Reply with quote  #5 
ok, so then help me understand this.

Leroy is a dog I picked up yesterday. He's at least 7, intact male. He's been having seizures since yesterday late afternoon. No history of it, but he just had the FULL set of shots (bad bad idea) from the Animal Welfare League. 5 way, bord, and Rabies.

Back end is a mess on this poor old guy. I also posted to Mastiff Health but it seems I'm still on moderation.

They gave me 100mg Deremaxx and 5mg x 2 of Diazpm to see if we can get the seizures stopped.

chemistry
BUN 20. MG/DL
CREA 1.1 MG/DL
CA 10 MG/DL
TP 6.6 G/DL
ALB 2.2 G/DL (LOW)
GLOB 4.5 G/DL
ALT 17 U/L
ALKP 160 U/L
GGT 6. U/L
TBIL < .1 MG/DL
AMYL 584 U/L
LIPA 297 U/L
GLU 98 MG/DL

NA 151. MMOL/L
K 4.9 MMOL/L
CL 111 MMOL/L

HEMATOLOGY
RBC 5. M/UL (LOW)
HCT 37%
HGB 12.4G/DL
MCV 73.9 FL
MCH 24.84 PG
MCHC 33.6 G/DL
RDW 15.4 %
%RETIC .4%
RETIC 21.9K/UL
WBC 16.09K/IL
%NEU 88.7%
%LYM 6.6%
%MONO 3.9%
%EOS .2%
%BASO .0%
NEU 14.26 K/UL (HIGH)
LYM 1.07 K/UL
MONO .63 K/UL
EOS .03 K/UL (LOW)
BASO .10 K/UL
PLT 273 K/UL
MPV 7.34 FL
PDW 17.1%
PCT .2 %

I'm having a very hard time with this and I am going to have to make some decisions. I don't want to leave him home alone tomorrow - but we both have to work. They want him back for observation tomorrow...which I can do if I get approval - but when I asked the vet if we could fix him - she didn't know.

I'm willing to raise the money if I have to, but thought I'd toss this out for opinions to see if anyone has any better ideas. I don't know that anyone will want to adopt this poor guy and he's so sweet it makes my heart cry.



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lucysnana

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Reply with quote  #6 
Thank you. We just found out our 4 year old mastiff, Job, has Addison's or at least that is what they are thinking it is because of the blood work. Right now they are trying to get his blood pressure to stabilize as it was at 0. When we left him it was at 50 and I checked on him around 930pm and they said they got it to 96 but dropped back to 60. Still not out of the woods.
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Kathy Kemper
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